Municipal Water Treatment | Public Water Systems | Drinking Water

Wondering thinking, is reverse osmosis (RO) reliable for municipal water treatment? Or, searching for the best manufacturers or advanced technologies?

In this article, we’ve discussed what it is, the working process, its benefits, and popular water equipment manufacturer throughout the world. 

Without further ado, let’s get started!

What is Municipal Water?

Municipal water is a reliable and convenient water source supplied to homes and industries by a local government. The water is sourced from surface water (rivers, lakes, or reservoirs) or groundwater through water treatment technology. However, the quality of this water depends on the water source, the treatment methods, and the condition of the pipe.

Figure 1 municipal water supplied to homes and industries

Why is municipal water Important? 

Municipal water is an essential part of our everyday life and becomes:

  • A reliable source of water during drought or other water shortages.
  • An affordable water source compared to bottled water.
  • These water systems protect the environment by removing pollution (stormwater runoff & wastewater treatment plants).

However, to ensure the municipal water quality it is treated to remove harmful contaminants and then distributed to homes and businesses.

How Does Reverse Osmosis (RO) Work for Municipal Water Treatment?

RO purification technology uses pressure (between 50 & 60 psi) to push water through a semipermeable membrane. The membrane works to retain larger particles and dissolved solids when water molecules pass through. Let’s take a closer look at RO filtration working steps:


Sediment and carbon are the two prefilters in RO systems. At first, the raw water passes through the sediment prefilter system that removes large particles, including dust, dirt, and rust. After that, the filtered water is transferred to the activated carbon filter to reduce chlorine and VOCs (volatile organic compounds).

RO membrane (synthetic plastic material)

The semipermeable membrane is used to remove small, hard dissolved particles, like sodium, chlorine, arsenic, etc. Also, it is resistant to bacteria and has a high rejection rate (avg. 95 to 97 percent).


In this step, the impurities from the water are passed down the drain. It increases the efficiency of the RO system. 


After that, the water is filled up in a storage tank (a pressurized vessel) or your faucet, where it waits to use it. 


In this step, the post-treatment filter (in-line activated carbon) removes the rest contaminants or adds minerals back to the water. 

Here’s the RO filtration system working video that may help you to understand it in a more specific way. 

How Reverse Osmosis System Turns Raw Water into Municipal Water?

RO uses a semipermeable membrane to distribute high-quality drinking water. But for municipal water treatment, there are several processes to ensure the water is safe and clean.

Figure 2 high-quality drinking water

For more details, let’s go through some basic steps below:

Step 1: Collection 

Before treating the water, it is first collected from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. After that, the water is transported via pipelines and pumps to the treatment plant. 

Step 2: Screening 

The first treatment process is to remove larger items from water, such as rubbish, plants, and other debris. The process is required to protect the main treatment plant. 

Step 3: Adding chemicals to water

In this step, different chemicals are used in this process. The main objective is to form suspended particles into a floc (larger and heavier particles). However, aluminum sulfate (alum) is used widely, but sulfate, manufactured chemicals, like polymers, and other chemicals are also used.

Figure 3 chemicals added to water

Step 4: Coagulation & Flocculation

In this step, positive charge chemicals are added to the processed water. After that, dissolved particles and dirt is removed by using adding chemicals negative charge. Where the overall process has happened is known as the “flocculation” unit.

Figure 4 coagulation & flocculation

Step 5: Solid Separation from water

After treatment from the flocculation unit, the mixer (water and floc) is sent to a sedimentation tank. The tank is also called a clarifier. The water is stored for several hours to settle down the floc in the tank. By using gravity, the sediment (stored particles or floc) is removed.

Step 6: Filtration

After removing the particles, the processed water passes through different filters, including sand, gravel, or granular activated carbon to remove smaller and unwanted particles. Every filter consists of various sizes/pores materials and removes contaminants of varying sizes, like dust or chemicals, from the water. 

Step 7: Sterilize 

The processed water still has bacteria and viruses. In this step, a disinfectant (UV or ultraviolet light), like chlorine is added to remove all microorganisms. 

Step 8: Storage & Distribution

Now the water is stored in underground or overground tanks for public consumption. Also, the processed water can be stored in several distribution systems, including storage tanks, pipelines, faucets, pumps, etc for home and businesses use purposes.

Key Benefits of Reverse Osmosis (RO) Technology for Municipal Water Production? 

RO treats a wide variety, such as surface water, seawater, and groundwater. The key benefits of using RO technology for municipal water production are shown below: 

Scalability and modular design

RO water systems are designed with three cylindrical canisters on a manifold – one is an RO membrane, and two others are carbon filters. 

Easy to install and maintain

RO water purification system is fully assembled and factory tested, which is easy to use. However, it is ideal to replace the RO membrane between two to three years, based on water quality, system size, and pretreatment process.

Remove contaminants & minerals

Reverse osmosis removes up to 99% of lead and 82 other additional contaminants. Also, its microscopic nature RO membrane can filter out both minerals and dissolved substances from the water. 

Energy efficient

RO system doesn’t use electricity; it only needs water pressure. That means it reduces extra costs of electricity and, in return, provides healthy drinking water. 

Improved water quality

Figure 5 improved water quality

By removing all unhealthy chemicals and contaminants, the RO water filter system serves you much purer-tasting water. Also, this RO water is safe for patients. 

Worth to investment

Sodium & lead-free great-quality water is best for households, cities, or businesses. Many consumers buy reverse osmosis filtration to cut down the costs of bottled water. 

What Kind of Equipment and Solutions Can NEWater Provide?

NEWater has a global presence to provide a wide range of Reverse Osmosis filtration systems for municipal water. From small towns, villages, and large cities, NEWater RO filtration systems are used to treat brackish, seawater, and drinking water by fulfilling EAP standards. 

Our water filtration/purification products offer advanced technology to complete overall processes from wells to treatments and high-service pumps. What factors make us unique from our competitors?

  • Advanced integrated automation technology removes all suspended solids, bacteria, and chemicals from water. 
  • Our filtration products remove odor and add minerals compared to traditional wastewater treatment models.
  • Safe discharge of pollution.
  • Improved membrane efficiency through a range of commercial and industrial NSF reverse osmosis systems.

Figure 6 NEWater RO filtration systems

Our System Customization Services and Brand Advantage

We have years of working experience with different industries. That’s why we can support local contacts and larger enterprises as per their requirements. If you require anything needed to design, construct, operate, and optimize RO & municipal water treatment plant systems, just contact us. 

Are you looking for reliable water filtration parts or a professional team?

With NEWater, you get advanced water filtration technologies, expert teams, and customizable solutions for treating municipal water.


Rever osmosis water filtration is the most reliable and trusted system for municipal water treatment. Its advanced filtration technology ensures fresh and healthy water without any viruses and harmful chemicals. 

However, if you’re searching for sustainable solutions and high-quality water treatment equipment, NEWater provides a wide range of filtration parts for municipal water.

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